Bacterial vaginosis


Bacterial vaginosis (vaginal bacterial vaginosis) is a disorder of the vaginal microflora and is manifested by a specific and unpleasant-smelling discharge. VV occurs in response to changes in body homeostasis under the influence of various factors: stress, climate changes, immune deficiency, excessive intimate hygiene, frequent change of sexual partners. Thanks to modern methods of diagnosis and treatment, you can get rid of the problem without difficulty. One of them —

Doctors often refer to bacterial vaginosis as vaginal dysbiosis.

So what exactly is bacterial vaginosis?
The normal functioning of the vaginal microflora requires a large number of lactic acid bacteria called Lactobacillus acidophilus, also known as Döderlein bacilli or lactobacilli, which create a pleasant, acidic environment. Under the influence of various factors, the number of these lactic acid bacteria decreases significantly, and opportunistic bacteria take their place, which in turn can cause various diseases, especially when the immune system is weakened. This fact contributes to a change in the acidity of the vagina.

It is now proven that bacterial vaginosis is not caused by individual microbes, but by the various bacteria in the vagina. For this reason, bacterial vaginosis cannot be classified as a sexually transmitted infectious disease. Unlike vaginitis or colpitis, the disease in question is not capable of causing inflammation in the vagina.

How often can one be exposed to this disease?
The exact frequency of bacterial vaginosis is not yet known. However, it is believed that almost one

in three women is affected by bacterial vaginosis at least once in her lifetime.

The disease is most common in women between the ages of 35 and 40.

What are the main factors that promote the occurrence of the disease?

The most important factors that favor the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis include the following

Existing intestinal dysbacteriosis. It is very common for vaginal and intestinal dysbacteriosis to occur simultaneously. It can easily result from antibiotic use.
Decreased immunity. However, it must be remembered that this is difficult to prove in practice.
Ingestion of fairly large amounts of antibiotics. After all, antibiotics are known to destroy lactic acid and other important bacteria.
Improper diet. Avoiding lactic acid products in the diet increases the risk of dysbacteriosis.
Use of underwear that is too tight and too breathable, more frequent use of tampons and pads (sometimes every day). All these factors lead to the fact that the vagina is not sufficiently supplied with oxygen, which can well kill harmful anaerobic bacteria.

What is neurosis?


Neurosis for which this medication is sometimes prescribed is a concept that is no longer often used in psychiatry, but is actively used in everyday life to refer to various kinds of mental malaise.

Neurotic conditions are characterized by a variety of symptoms, but a number of common features can be identified:

1. Neurotic disorder has no physical cause, but can manifest itself with symptoms resembling a physical ailment.
Psychiatrist: “In the practice of doctors, it is frequent when a patient complains of pain or discomfort, for example, in the heart, stomach, intestines and other areas of the body. He goes to doctors, undergoes multiple examinations, but the cause is not found – physically he is healthy, and the unpleasant symptoms are a manifestation of neurosis. This is why such a patient is recommended to see a psychiatrist.

2. Neurosis always has a psychological cause.

Ye. V. Kiyan, psychotherapist: “Symptom of neurosis is a result of how the person’s psyche reacts to some disadvantage. If the cause of the trouble is external – it is clear and visible, for example, a failure at work or parting with a loved one – but the real cause is always hidden from the person himself – it lies in his subconscious. For example, neurosis manifested by an obsessive desire to maintain cleanliness and order may be a manifestation of a conflict between the needs of the personality and an internal ban on their manifestation. Psychotherapy, which is the basic direction of treatment of neurotic disorders, can help to reveal the real reason.
3. Manifestations of neurosis are very diverse. It is possible to distinguish the following groups:
– Anxiety and phobic disorders – these are various fears, panic attacks, increased anxiety;
– Obsessive-compulsive disorder – obsessive thoughts, actions, constructions, aspirations;
– conversion disorders – in other words, they are called hysterical reactions – feelings of memory loss, altered sensation, impaired body movement and other
– somatoform disorders – the presence of “symptoms” of physical illness, in the absence of physical illness;
– neurasthenia – a state of increased mental fatigue, tension headaches, sleep disorders, inability to relax.
4. In neurosis, there is no disturbance of criticism, painful detachment from reality; the patient seeks help and wants cure.
Gamchyan A.A.: “There is a conditional division in psychiatry into levels of disorders: neurotic – patient is not detached from reality, his personality is not disturbed, borderline – when there is some disorganization of psyche, and psychotic – detached from reality, delirium and hallucinations”.

What is Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort)


Treating certain conditions associated with decreased adrenal gland function. It is used to treat severe inflammation caused by certain conditions, including severe asthma, severe allergies, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, certain blood disorders, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and certain eye and skin conditions. It may be used for certain types of cancer (eg, leukemia). It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) is a corticosteroid. It works by modifying the body’s immune response to various conditions and decreasing inflammation.

Important safety information:

Frenaler Cortis a corticosteroid It works by modifying the body's immune
Frenaler Cortis a corticosteroid It works by modifying the body’s immune
  • Betamethasone may lower the ability of your body to fight infection. Avoid contact with people who have colds or infections. Tell your doctor if you notice signs of infection like fever, sore throat, rash, or chills.
  • If you have not had chickenpox, shingles, or measles, avoid contact with anyone who does.
  • Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.
  • Diabetes patients – Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) may affect your blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.
  • If you use Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) for an extended period of time, your body may not produce enough natural steroids for up to several months after you stop using it. Severe symptoms may occur if you experience injury, surgery, infection, or loss of blood electrolytes. Contact your doctor immediately if you experience any of these events. You may need to begin taking additional corticosteroids.
  • If you have had Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) injected into a joint and you experience increased pain along with swelling, decreased joint movement, fever, and general feeling of being unwell, contact your doctor.
  • Talk with your doctor before you receive any vaccine while you are using Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort).
  • Serious health problems have happened when corticosteroids, including Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort), have been given into the spine (epidural). These include paralysis, blindness, stroke, and sometimes death. Safety and effectiveness of corticosteroids given into the spine have not been confirmed. Corticosteroids are not approved for this use. Discuss any questions or concerns with your doctor.
  • Lab tests, including adrenal function tests and blood pressure monitoring, may be performed while you use Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort). These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.
  • Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) may have benzyl alcohol in it. Do not use it in NEWBORNS or INFANTS. It may cause serious and sometimes fatal nervous system problems and other side effects
  • Corticosteroids may affect growth rate in CHILDREN and teenagers in some cases. They may need regular growth checks while they use Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort).
  • Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) should be used with extreme caution in CHILDREN; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.
  • PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) while you are pregnant. Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort), check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

Betamethasone (Frenaler Cort) side effects

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor side effects. Check with your doctor if any of these most COMMON side effects persist or become bothersome:
Acne; clumsiness; dizziness; facial flushing; general body discomfort; headache; increased appetite; increased sweating; lightheadedness; nausea; nervousness; pain, swelling, or redness at the injection site; sleeplessness; upset stomach.Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur:Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); black, tarry stools; changes in body fat; changes in menstrual periods; changes in skin color; chest pain; easy bruising or bleeding; irregular heartbeat; mental or mood changes (eg, depression); muscle pain, wasting, or weakness; seizures; severe nausea or vomiting; sudden severe dizziness or headache; swelling of feet or legs; symptoms of infection (eg, chills, fever, sore throat); tendon or bone pain; thinning of the skin; unusual skin sensation; unusual weight gain; vision changes or other eye problems; vomit that looks like coffee grounds.
This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. To report side effects to the appropriate agency, please read the Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA.

Desloratadine (Frenaler Cort)

What is Desloratadine (Frenaler Cort)

Desloratadine (Frenaler Cort) is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of the natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose.
Desloratadine (Frenaler Cort) is used to treat the symptoms of allergies, such as sneezing, watery eyes, and runny nose. It is also used to treat skin hives and itching in people with chronic skin reactions.
Desloratadine (Frenaler Cort) may also be used for purposes not listed in Desloratadine (Frenaler Cort) guide.
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What do you need to know about vitamin D and C


Vitamin D

Vitamin D is necessary for normal growth and development of bone skeleton and teeth, prevention of rickets. Vitamin D helps to digest calcium and phosphorus. This vitamin is produced in the body under the influence of sunlight and exists in two types of D2 and D3. D2 or ergocalciferol enters the body of a child with plant food, and D3 – cholecalciferol, produced in the body under the influence of sunlight.

The daily rate of vitamin D is:
For newborns – 400 ME;
For children from 1 year – 600 ME;
For children over 12 years – 1000 ME.

Preparations of vitamin D exist in the form of oil and aqueous solutions, as well as chewing pastes. The oil solution of vitamin D is better absorbed by the body. It is usually used for medicinal purposes; An aqueous vitamin D solution is better used as a preventive measure; Chewy Pastilles – can be given to children from 3 years old. In addition to vitamin D, the prepartum contains other vitamins and minerals.

What do you need to know about vitamin D and C

Among the most popular preparations of vitamin D in oil solution:
Vigantol (Merck, Germany) – produced in vials in the form of drops, contains 0.5 mg (20 000 ME) of vitamin D3. It has a number of contraindications, which should be familiarized with before taking the drug;
Devisol Drops (Orion, Finland) – contains 2 mg of vitamin D3, coconut oil and vitamin E;
D-San (Sanofi, France) – a drug in the form of drops, allowed for children from 1.5 years to 1 drop per day. Contains vitamin D3 200 ME, 20 ml, peanut butter. It may cause allergy to the components.

Vitamin D3 preparations on aqueous solution include: Aquadetrim (Acrychine) – 1 ml solution contains 500 ME of vitamin D3, as well as auxiliary components. The drug is used to prevent rickets in infants.
Multi-Tabs Baby (Ferrosan, Denmark) – contains vitamins D3, A and C.

Chewy Pastilles: VitaBears Calcium + D3 – presented as chewing pills in the form of bears. In addition to vitamin D3, it also contains calcium and phosphorus.

Vitamin C

What do you need to know about vitamin D and C

The most important property of vitamin C is to strengthen the immunity. With sufficient use of this vitamin, the frequency of infectious diseases in a child decreases. This vitamin is useful for almost the entire body, as it takes part in the work of many organs and systems.

Vitamin C:

  • Strengthens the walls of blood vessels;

  • Protects against the effects of toxins;

  • It is involved in the synthesis of collagen – a protein that is part of cartilage and bones;

  • Participates in the absorption of iron and folic acid;

  • Regulates the processes of blood clotting and others;

  • Promotes rapid wound healing and recovery after surgery.

Daily dose of vitamin C for children under 1 year is 30 mg, from 1 to 3 years – 40 mg and from 3 to 12 years – 45 mg, for adolescents – 60 mg. Higher doses can be taken during diseases or when there is a shortage of ascorbic acid. Vitamin C in necessary doses for a child is a part of popular vitamin complexes – Multi-Tabs Immuno-Kids, Alphabet Shkolnik, Pikovit, Vitrum Kids, Kinder Biovital.

Best vitamins for children


Vitamins – special substances. They have no calories, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, but life is impossible without them. After all, vita from the Latin language means “life”. Vitamins support metabolism, participate in the work of virtually all organs and systems of the body – nervous, endocrine, gastrointestinal, etc. Most vitamins are not formed in the body, they must be regularly received with food, fruits and vegetables, or take vitamin preparations. Lack of vitamins may especially affect the normal development of children. A growing body needs vitamins to a greater extent.

Which vitamins is better for a child?

Best vitamins for children

If a child found a vitamin deficiency selection of necessary drugs can be difficult. Today, pharmacies offer a large number of vitamin complexes for children. Only a doctor can choose the necessary preparation, taking into account the needs of your child’s body. It is also necessary to consider possible contraindications and side effects of drugs.

The composition of vitamins can be of different types:

  • Monocomponent, i.e. contain only one of the vitamins, such as vitamins C, D, K and others;

  • Polytivitamins – preparations that contain several vitamins at the same time;

  • Complexes of vitamins and minerals – preparations containing both vitamins and minerals at the same time (for example, iron, calcium, manganese, zinc, copper).

There are different forms of vitamin preparations. This can be tablets, syrups, chewing pastels, marmalade figurines, soluble fizzy tablets, lollipops. Vitamin intake should begin not in the epidemic season of viral diseases, and before it. In summer it is better to give preference to fresh fruits and vegetables. Vitamins should be taken in courses, but not on a permanent basis, which is a common mistake of parents. There will be no benefit from long-term use of vitamins. Excess water-soluble vitamins will be excreted with urine, and fat-soluble vitamins will settle in the body tissues and can cause toxic effects. Each of the vitamins has a specific function in the body. Therefore, lack of any of the vitamins leads to certain symptoms. For example, suspected lack of vitamin C can be with bleeding gums, loose teeth, frequent colds. Paleness of covers, tongue ulcers, general weakness can develop with a lack of vitamin B12. However, to determine exactly what vitamins are missing in the child’s body can be tested for vitamin and mineral composition of the blood. Choose vitamin complexes only after consultation with a doctor.

Raise the immune system

Best vitamins for children

Children are much more likely than adults to catch the infection. They have a harder time with ODS, and recover longer. This can be explained by the fact that the child’s immunity has not yet been formed. In order to reduce the child’s morbidity and speed up recovery, doctors recommend supplementing the diet with vitamin complexes. Vitamins and minerals that support the child’s defenses are included:

  • Vitamin C or ascorbic acid – several times increases the body’s resistance to different viruses and bacteria. It also promotes wound healing, has antioxidant properties and protects against various toxins. This vitamin has a beneficial effect on many organs and systems;

  • Vitamin A or beta-carotene is a strong antioxidant. It protects cells from all kinds of damage, prevents the aging process, strengthens vision and supports the health of skin and mucous membranes;

  • Vitamin D – plays an important role in strengthening the immune system. This vitamin is produced in the child’s body by the sun. It helps to digest calcium, promotes normal bone skeleton development and prevents rickets;

  • Vitamin E- protects the body from the harmful effects of free radicals. These aggressive compounds damage cells and lead to their death. Vitamin E is able to protect the body from cardiovascular and cancer diseases.

Why do older people especially need vitamins


In old age, the concentration of vitamins in the blood may be two to three times lower than normal. Lack of vitamins B1 and B2 is observed in 40% of the population of our country, who crossed the 50-year age limit. 10-30% of pensioners suffer from B6 deficiency. 60% of people over 50 years of age lack ascorbic acid, 40% lack retinol (A), 20% lack vitamin B12. The most unfortunate situation is that of vitamin E. According to numerous studies, about 80% of pensioners suffer from vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin deficiency in the elderly and the elderly is explained by the fact that with age, bioactive substances are less absorbed by the intestinal walls. This phenomenon is attributed by physicians to the physiological norm, which accompanies the process of aging.

What significance do vitamins have for the body of people over 50-60 years of age?

Why do older people especially need vitamins

An aging body needs to be provided with a sufficient supply of vitamins. The most important of these vitamins:

  • D. It is necessary to assimilate calcium, which in older people is washed from the bones, making them fragile and increasing the risk of fractures. Also vitamin D helps the body of an elderly person to resist colds infections.

  • B2. With a lack of this vitamin, the visual and nervous system is particularly affected. In addition, the body’s resistance to infections is reduced.

  • B12. Deficiency of this substance may lead to irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system. There is evidence that it is B12 deficiency that can cause mental disorders, depression and senile dementia at the age of 70-80 years. Regular intake of this vitamin is useful for memory, which affects most pensioners over 70 years of age.

  • B6. Helps to avoid immune problems typical for elderly people. This substance is involved in the production of lymphocytes – cells of the body that provide the production of antibodies.

  • PP. Helps maintain the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the function of the central nervous system, which is often impaired in old age. Niacin deficiency in elderly people is manifested by irritability, rapid fatigue, insomnia.

  • K. Reduces the risk of nasal bleeding and hematoma. Both in older people may be associated with vascular fragility.

What role do antioxidant vitamins play in the elderly organism?

Why do older people especially need vitamins

Antioxidant substances are essential to the body to fight oxidative processes that are activated in old age. Free radicals trigger such destructive reactions. They are unstable compounds that accelerate the aging process and destroy cell membranes. Oxidative stress can lead to serious diseases such as cancer, cataracts, depression, dementia. Antioxidant vitamins include A (beta-carotene), C and E. At the age of over 50 they should be used according to indications, and people 70-80 years – on a regular basis. It is necessary to consult with a doctor beforehand.

Each of the antioxidants acts in its own way:

  • A (beta-carotene). It helps to preserve the integral structure of cells, neutralizing the strongest oxidant – atomic oxygen. Beta-carotene also helps to strengthen the vascular walls and helps fight diseases of the circulatory system. In particular, there is evidence that people with a vitamin A deficiency are more likely to suffer from strokes. Therefore, specialists recommend retired people to take it in a higher dose, as prescribed by a doctor.

  • E (tocopherols). This is the most powerful antioxidant, which is included in almost all vitamin complexes for elderly people. It inhibits the aging process, protects the brain from damage. It reduces the risk of thrombosis, increases the body’s endurance.

  • C (ascorbic acid). Vitamin is necessary for the normal operation of the immune system, helps the body to resist viruses and bacteria, strengthens the heart and blood vessels. Regular replenishment of ascorbic acid in the body is one of the measures to prevent atherosclerosis.

To get the maximum benefit from substances with antioxidant properties, they should not be taken in isolation, but as a whole.

What vitamins do women need after 50 years of age?

With the onset of menopause, women are at risk of developing osteoporosis – bone fragility. To prevent fractures, it is necessary to take calcium in combination with vitamin D. This helps prevent such a severe consequence of osteoporosis as a femoral neck fracture. In addition, older women need to ensure an additional intake of B vitamins, which are worse absorbed after 50-60 years. At this age, the doctor may also prescribe additional intake of retinol (A), ascorbic acid (C), tocopherol (E) and calciferol (D). This is necessary for the prevention of cardiac, vascular, and cancer diseases.

What is acid reflux?


Dr. Denis Slinkin

The involuntary ingestion of stomach contents into the esophagus is called acid reflux, as Dr. Denis Slinkin says.

Reasons could be as follows:

You may have a weakened lower oesophagus sphincter that cannot prevent acid from getting from the stomach into the esophagus. The sphincter is a muscle ring located between the esophagus and stomach. Its function is to let food down into the stomach and then close it tightly, which facilitates further digestion.

Excessive amounts of acid in the stomach as a result of unhealthy food or if you eat too much.
Overpopulation of the stomach due to unhealthy eating habits.During pregnancy, the fetus can exert pressure on the mother’s stomach, which can also cause acid reflux in the woman, says Dr. Denis Slinkin.

The most common symptoms of reflux

Dr. Denis Slinkin

Dr. Denis Slinkin states: As a result of the entry of gastric acid into the esophagus, the most common symptoms, such as burning and pain behind the sternum, better known as heartburn, may occur. This is because if acid is ingested from the stomach into the esophagus, the mucous membrane of the oesophagus is affected. The duration and strength of the pain will depend on the amount of acid that has entered the mucous membrane of the esophagus and on the duration of this contact.

Unexpected symptoms of acid reflux

You may have heard or read in connection with acid reflux about a concept such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or esophagitis reflux. It is the name given to diseases with various symptoms that affect the upper parts of the human food chain.

Therefore, the symptoms of acid reflux already mentioned may include some other symptoms:

  • a strong feeling of tightness in the chest;
  • an unpleasant sour taste in the mouth and nausea;
  • a sour or bitter burp in the throat or mouth;
  • difficult swallowing and the feeling of food getting stuck in your throat;
  • pain in swallowing.